Serving all of Maryland

Prudential Associates strongly endorses thorough and regular drug and alcohol testing for employees. Our services are designed to help you identify problem empoyees, protect your interests, and minimize the opportunity for abuse. Our programs are 100% DOT (Department of Transportation) compliant.

Testing Services:

The Act requires testing for controlled substance and alcohol use under a variety of circumstances. Test will be conducted under the following circumstances:

Pre-employment Testing

Federal law (49 CFR 382.301) requires that prior to the first time a driver performs safety-sensitive functions for an employer, the driver shall undergo testing for alcohol and controlled substances.

Random Testing

Federal law (49 CFR 382.305) requires that random controlled substance testing be conducted for at least 50% of the average number of driver positions and random alcohol testing be conducted for at least 10% of the average number of driver positions. The alcohol testing percentage can change depending on the reported violation rates.

The selection of drivers for random alcohol and controlled substances testing are determined by a scientifically valid method. Under the selection process used, each driver shall have an equal chance of being tested each time selections are made. It is the intention of the Cooperative that driver’s of the districts participating in the cooperative will constitute a group for random testing.

Reasonable Suspicion Testing

Federal law (49 CFR 382.307) requires that an employer shall require a driver to submit to an alcohol test and/or controlled substance test when the employer has reasonable suspicion to believe that the driver has violated the prohibitions of the Act.

Post Accident Testing

Federal law (49 CFR 382.303) requires that as soon as practical following an accident involving a commercial motor vehicle each employer shall test for alcohol and controlled substances each surviving driver (1) who was performing safety-sensitive function with respect to the vehicle; if the accident involved the loss of human life; or (2) who receives a citation under State or local law for a moving violation arising from the accident.

Return to Duty Testing

Federal law (49 CFR 382.309) requires that before a driver returns to duty following a violation of the Act, the driver shall undergo a return-to-duty alcohol and/or controlled substance test.

Follow-up Testing

Federal law (49 CFR 382.311) requires that following a determination by a substance abuse professional that a driver is in need of assistance in resolving problems associated with alcohol misuse and/or use of controlled substances, the district shall ensure that the driver is subject to unaccounted follow-up alcohol and/or controlled substances testing as direct by the substance abuse professional.

Testing process followed in all above testing.

1. Controlled Substances Testing

The following requirements are from the US Department of Transportation:

  • Tests shall be conducted using urine split samples with a 30 ml primary sample and a 15 ml split sample. A screening test will be performed on the primary sample and, if positive, a confirmation test will be performed on the primary sample.
  • A clear and well-documented procedure will be maintained for collection, shipment, and accessioning of urine samples. A standard US.DOT drug testing custody and control form is required.
  • Collection sites must have all the necessary personnel, materials, equipment, facilities and supervisors to provide for the collection, security, temporary storage, and shipping of urine specimens to a certified drug testing laboratory.
  • Collection site personnel must be trained to carry out this function or be a licensed medical professional or technician provided instruction to carry out this function.

2. Alcohol Testing

The following requirements are from the US Department of Transportation:

  • Tests will be conducted using an Evidential Breath Testing Device (EBT) that appears on NHTSA’s Conforming Products List.
  • The EBT must be operated by a Breath Alcohol Technician (BAT) who has been trained to proficiency in the operation of an EBT.
  • The test site must afford visual and aural privacy to the individual being tested.
  • A required testing form and/or logbook as prescribed by DOT must be used.

3. Special Circumstances

The supervisor of the donor will be consulted and kept informed as the testing process is conducted and any of the following circumstances are encountered.

  • Shy Bladder – This is a term used to describe the situation when a donor is unable to produce a sufficient sample. The donor will be observed and allowed to consume up to 40 ounces of water. The donor will be given the opportunity to produce a sufficient sample and if still unable then a MD must determine if there is a medical reason for this inability.
  • Adultered/Out of Temperature Range Sample – Samples that are discolored, out of temperature range, omit odd smell, debris in sample or obvious sounds indicate adulterant activity will be considered altered.
  • Refusals – A refusal to provide a sample will be treated as a positive result.

Other Services:

Background Checks

Inquiries are made of the previous employees for the past two years regarding whether drug testing was performed and the testing results for new or returning employees hired as drivers. Federal law (49 CFR 382.413) requires these background checks to be performed.


Federal law (49 CFR 391.41) requires drivers are to have a physical examination not more than once every two years.

Physical Capacity Testing

Testing option available to district to test employees ability to complete specific physical tasks in a satisfactory manner.

Training Opportunities

Supervisor Training and Employee Education

Federal law (49 CFR 382.603) requires employers to ensure that supervisors, or others designated to determine whether reasonable suspicion exists which requires testing under 49 CFR 382.207, receive at least 60 minutes of training on alcohol misuse and at least 60 minutes of training on controlled substance use.

Federal law (49 CFR 382.601) requires employers to provide educational materials explaining the requirement of the Act and the employer’s procedures with respect to meeting the requirements of the Act.

Customized First Aid Training

First Aid/CPR/bloodborne pathogen training that meets all of the current state and federal requirements. The course is designed to be relevant in a school/transportation environment.